1. 6-day peak (25-year return period) estimated freezing rain amounts (mm). Source: MacIver, D.C and H. Auld. 2000
2. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) climatological ice amount design criteria for communication structures. Source: CSA 2001b
3. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) climatological ice amount design criteria for power lines. Source: CSA 2001a
4. Average number of days per year with freezing precipitation, based on data from 1971-2000 (Provincial Overview). Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
5. Average number of hours per year with freezing rain, based on data from 1953/54-2000/01 (Provincial Overview). Source: Klaassen et al, 2003
6. Average number of hours per year with freezing precipitation, based on data from 1965-1988. Source: Vilcans and Burnham, 1989; Strapp et al., 1996;
- Canadian Standards Association 2001a. Canadian Standard CAN/CSA=C22.3 No. 1-M87 (R2001) Overhead Systems. Ice and Wind Loads contributed by Environment Canada. Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario.
- Canadian Standards Association 2001b. Canadian Standard CSA-S37 Antennas, Towers and Antenna-Supporting Structures. Ice and Wind Loads contributed by R. Morris, T. Yip and H. Auld. Canadian Standards Association, Rexdale, Ontario.
- Environment Canada, 2003a. National Climate Data and Information Archive. Available online: http://climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html
- Klaassen, J., S. Cheng, H. Auld, Q. Li, E. Ros, M. Geast, G. Li and R. Lee, 2003. Estimation of Severe Ice Storms Risks for South-Central Canada. Study and Report Prepared by MSC-Ontario Region for the Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness. Available online at Klaassen et al, 2003.
- MacIver, D.C and H. Auld. 2000. Weather Hazards and Changing Road Conditions in Ontario, Canada. Third Symposium on the Urban Environment- American Meteorological Society, 14-18 August 2000, Davis California, 213-215 pp.
- Strapp, J.W., R.A. Stuart, and G.A. Isaac, 1996. A Canadian Climatology of Freezing Precipitation, and a Detailed Study using Data from St. John’s, Newfoundland. Proceedings of the FAA International Conference on Aircraft In-flight Icing, Springfield, Virginia, 6-8 May 1996.
- Vilcans and Burnham, 1989 Vilcans, J. and D. Burnham, 1989. Climatological Study to Determine the Impact of Icing on the Low Level Windshear Alert System. Tech. Report DOT-TSC-FAA-89-3 (Vols. 1 and 2), U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA 02142.
Data from ontario.hazards.ca