Cold

In this section, you will find some of the maps generated by Environment Canada, Emergency Management Ontario, MNR

ColdDroughtFlood/RainfallFogHailHealthHeatSnowHurricaneIce StormLightningMarineTornadoWind

Extreme Cold

Temperature
1. Average annual total Heating Degree Days below 18° C (1968-1988). Source: Watson and MacIver, 1995
2. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -20° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Provincial Overview). Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
3. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -20° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Provincial Overview). Source: MSC-Ontario Region, 2005a
4. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -20° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Southern Ontario). Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
5. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -20° C, based on 1971-2000 data. Map for Northern Ontario. Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
6. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -30° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Provincial Overview). Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
7. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -30° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Provincial Overview). Source: MSC-Ontario Region, 2005a
8. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -30° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Southern Ontario).
 Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
9. Average number of days per year with minimum temperatures < -30° C, based on data from 1971-2000 (Northern Ontario).
 Source: Environment Canada, 2003a
10. Extreme minimum temperature (° C) during the station period of record (Provincial Overview). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
11. Extreme minimum temperature (° C) during the station period of record (Southern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, South-Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
12. Extreme minimum temperature (° C) during the station period of record (Northern Ontario). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
13. Most recent occurrence of extreme minimum temperature (Southern Ontario). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
14. Most recent occurrence of extreme minimum temperature (Northern Ontario). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.

Wind Chill
1. Average number of days per year with wind chill <-30 (1971-2000 and station period of record). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
2. Average number of days per year with wind chill <-40 (1971-2000 and station period of record). Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
3. Extreme minimum wind chill during the station period of record. Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
4. Most recent occurrence of extreme minimum wind chill. Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.
5. Most recent occurrence of greatest number of days in year meeting Environment Canada’s Wind Chill Criteria. Source: Environment Canada, 2009b.

Cold Related Climate Indices

1. Trends in Heating Degree Days (annual accumulated departures of the daily mean temperature below 18° C). Source: Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2001.; Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2006.
2. Trends in Number of Cold Nights (days with minimum temperature < 10th percentile). Source: Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2006.
3. Trends in Cold Spell Duration Index (maximum number of consecutive days with minimum temperature < 5° C below normal minimum temperature). Source: Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2004.; Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2006.
4. Trends in Cold Spell Frequency Index ( number of ‘waves’ or 3 consecutive days with minimum temperature < 10th percentile). Source: Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2006.

Sources

  • Environment Canada, 2003a. National Climate Data and Information Archive. Available online: http://climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html
  • Environment Canada, 2009b. Internal Data Analysis. Data Courtesy of Environment Canada’s National Climate Data and Information Archive.
  • Meteorological Service of Canada-Ontario Region, 2005a. Internal. Data Courtesy of National Climate Data and Information Archive.
  • Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2001. Indicators of climate change in Canada. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 111-114.
  • Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2004. Variations and trends in climate indices for Canada. In Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations. Preprints of the 84th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington.
  • Vincent, L. and É. Mekis, 2006. Changes in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices for Canada over the twentieth century. Atmosphere-Ocean, 44, 177-193.
  • Watson B.G. and MacIver D., March 1995. Integrated Mapping Assessment Project (IMAP). Environment Canada and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.

Data from hazards.ca

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